Instructional Development or Instructional Design (ID) is training design. ID is associated with the systematic approach of analyzing human performance problems, identifying the underlying causes of those problems or gaps in performance, choosing solutions that address performance gaps, and implementing interventions such as training, performance support tools, organizational restructure, and employee reward programs.
So that instructional designers can perform their jobs effectively with the available information, they adopt models of the Instructional Systems Design (ISD) process. The ISD process is a systematic approach to teaching. It considers the environment in which learners are expected to perform, characteristics of the learners, and characteristics of the learning environment that could impact the effectiveness of the instruction. ISD is also a series of steps that explore the purpose and delivery method of the instruction and facilitate its effectiveness through formative evaluation and careful implementation. The IDS method helps ensure that the instruction will actually be able to solve an identified problem or achieve a desired organizational goal.
According to Gilly, Eggland, and Gilley (1989), the instructional design process consists of seven interrelated phases with each phase serving as a basis for the others. The seven phases are philosophy of teaching and learning; organizational, performance, and needs analysis; feedback; program design; program development; evaluation; and accountability.
Phase 1: Philosophy of teaching and learning
Phase 1 includes the identification of the instructional designer’s own personal training style and the learning styles of participants to assure that the most appropriate training style will be used for a diverse group of learners.
Phase 2: Organizational, performance, and needs analysis
When you wish to improve organizational performance or resolve a problem that has been observed or brought to the attention of members of an organization, a performance analysis is warranted. The initiative behind a performance analysis is to review the system, recognize a need, assemble an evaluation (measurement instrument) that identifies the objective, choose the intervention, and then develop content and context that will close or significantly narrow the gap between the need and the objective.
Phase 3: Feedback
The feedback process ensures that the chosen intervention will be supported and promoted by others in the organization. The feedback process helps build necessary and influential partnerships within the organization, improving the operation of Human Resource Development (HRD) and securing the future of learning in the organization.
Phase 4: Program design
The design phase is based on the information discovered in the needs analysis phase and should include learner characteristics, knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) requirements, causes of the performance deficiencies, and task analysis.
Phase 5: Program development
During the program development phase, the designed intervention is translated into actual training materials and strategies. The out puts for this phase include lesson plans, instructional strategies, instructional media, and learner materials.
Phase 6: Evaluation
The purpose of this phase is to determine if the program accomplished its objectives in helping participants develop adequate KSAs used to improve their performance or to implement appropriate organizational changes. Each intervention should be evaluated to determine whether the appropriate design was used, the instructional designer developed the intervention properly, and the intervention was implemented appropriately.
Phase 7: Accountability
During the accountability phase, instructional designers use the information gathered in the evaluation phase to implement necessary changes. The learner, the organization, the manager, the instructional designer, and the facilitator are held accountable for their actions during this phase.
Gilley, J., Eggland, S., and Gilley, A. M. (1989). Principles of human resource development. New York, NY: Basic Books.